Report - India

27 August 2019

Green Cardamom in India

Green Cardamom in India

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) is one of the oldest known spices in the world.
Evergreen forests of Western Ghats of South India are considered as the centre of origin
as well as natural habitat of cardamom. Cardamom is commercially cultivated for its dried
fruits (capsules), which is also referred as cardamom of commerce.

Types/cultivars
Based on adaptability, nature of panicle, shape and size of capsules, the cultivars are
categorized into Malabar, Mysore and Vazhukka. The cultivar Malabar with a prostrate
panicle (panicles spreading on ground) is widely grown in Karnataka, while the cultivar
Mysore, characterized with erect panicles is extensively cultivated in Kerala and parts of
Tamil Nadu. Whereas, the cultivar Vazhukka, a natural hybrid between Malabar and Mysore
types with a distinct semi-erect (pendent) panicle, is the most popular cultivar in Kerala.

Climate and soil
The crop thrives well in regions which receive a well-distributed annual rainfall of 1500-2500
mm with a mean temperature of 15°C to 35°C, relative humidity of 75-90% and 600-1200
m above MSL. Cardamom grows luxuriantly in forest loam soils, which are generally acidic in
nature with a pH range of 5.5-6.5. Growth of cardamom is enhanced, when planted in
humus rich soils with low to medium available phosphorus and medium to high available
potassium.

Varieties
Released varieties/selections of cardamom with high yield potential and superior capsule
characters from different research organizations are given in Table 1. Apart from these,
farmers varieties like Njallani green gold, Vander cardamom, Panikulangara No. 1, Palakuzhi
selection and Valley green bold are also grown in cardamom growing tracts of the country.

Propagation
Propagation by vegetative means through suckers is considered to be the most preferred
method. Production of planting materials from seeds and through tissue culture are
alternative methods of propagation. Seedling propagated plants may not be true to itsparent.

International Scenario
Cardamom is generally produced in the tropical regions of the world. Gautemala is the
largest cardamom producing country followed by India. The total world production of this
spice is around 50,000 MT per annum (source: Spices Board). Consumption of cardamom
has sharply increased throughout the world during the last two decades. The major
consuming countries of cardamom are the Middle Eastern countries, India, Pakistan,
European countries, And US. Middle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia and
the United Arab Emirates, and South-East Asian countries such as India, etc., account for
more than 60% of the world’s consumption. Saudi Arabia is the single largest importer of
Cardamom in the world, followed by United Arab Emirates.

12 July 2019

Indian Cardamom Day 2019: Collaboration between the Central Government and Regional Government to Raise the Glory of Indian Cardamom

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